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Grain products include items such as bread, rice, pasta, oatmeal, cereal, and tortillas. Unfortunately, most of the foods we eat are refined grains, such as white bread, white rice, pasta, and pretzels. Refined grains do not contain as many nutrients as whole grains because most of the nutritional value is processed out of them.

An unrefined whole grain contains all of the nutritional elements of the grain kernel. This includes the bran and germ. Whole grains contain more B vitamins, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, and proteins.

White flour, which is the base of many of our foods, is made by refining whole grains. During the refining process, most or all of the bran and germ are removed. White flour that has been enriched has certain nutrients added to it, such as iron and some B vitamins (including folate). However, other important nutrients are lost, including vitamins E and B6, magnesium, copper, zinc, and phytochemicals.

Whole grains are a healthier choice because the ingredients they contain may help to lower the risk of many chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Soluble fiber, which is found in oats and barley, can lower cholesterol levels.